Is Hierowski a Jewish surname?
No, certainly not (well, almost certainly). Basically Jews in Poland did not have hereditary surnames before early 19th c. Converts to Christianity adopted Polish-sounding names but at that time and place it is rather improbable.
There is actually quite a lot to be found on-line about Batholomew under his Latinized surname "Hierovius". He seems to have published more than just two works and they were cited by later medical works. His wife died in 1598 and there was a funeral sermon:
Boleslaus already is the Latinization of Bolesław. The Polish form of Gu(g)lielmus is the same as German: Wilhelm.
I have only seen the dedication in the 1550 edition. Is it in the 1518/1519? I may try to ask a friend who is a specialist on Toruń patriciate families. If Hierowski was an educated adult at that time, he may well have been a contemporary of Copernicus, another Toruń patrician. Intriguing...
Rafal T. Prinke wrote: I have only seen the dedication in the 1550 edition. Is it in the 1518/1519?
Re Copernicus, please note that Panteo was also an astronomer, who published a lunar calendar in 1535. One of the 'censors' who passed the Voarchadumia for publication in 1530 was Antonio de Fantis, also an astronomer (and, I believe, an astrologer as well). Don't know whether this might be relevant.